The Principles of Sports Training By Mark Strasser M.S. CSCS of CriticalBench.com
Getting the most from an athlete using different training methods
There are several universally accepted scientific training principles that are followed in programs to improve conditioning and performance. These principles include:
1. The Principle Of Individual Differences
Because every athlete is different, each person's response to exercise will vary. A proper training program should be modified to take individual differences into account. Some considerations:
· Large muscles heal slower than smaller muscles.
· Fast or explosive movements require more recovery time than slow movements.
· Fast twitch muscle fibers recover quicker than slow twitch muscle fibers.
· Women generally need more recovery time than men.
· Older athletes generally need more recovery time than younger athletes.
· The heavier the load lifted, the longer it will take the muscles to recover.
2.The Principle of Overload
The principle of overload states that a greater than normal stress or load on the body is required for training adaptation to take place. The body will adapt to this stimulus. Once the body has adapted then a different stimulus is required to continue the change. In order for a muscle (including the heart) to increase strength, it must be gradually stressed by working against a load greater than it is used to. To increase endurance, muscles must work for a longer period of time than they are used to. If this stress is removed or decreased there will be a decrease in that particular component of fitness. A normal amount of exercise will maintain the current fitness level.
3. The Principle of Progression
The principle of progression implies that there is an optimal level of overload that should be achieved, and an optimal timeframe for this overload to occur. Overload should not be increased too slowly or improvement is unlikely. Overload that is increased too rapidly will result in injury or muscle damage. Exercising above the target zone is counterproductive and can be dangerous. For example, the weekend athlete who exercises vigorously only on weekends does not exercise often enough, and so violates the principle of progression.
The Principle of Progression also makes us realize the need for proper rest and recovery. Continual stress on the body and constant overload will result in exhaustion and injury. You should not (and can not) train hard all the time. Doing so will lead to over-training and a great deal of physical and psychological damage will result.
4. The Principle of Adaptation
Adaptation is the way the body 'programs' muscles to remember particular activities, movements or skills. By repeating that skill or activity, the body adapts to the stress and the skill becomes easier to perform. Adaptation explains why beginning exercisers are often sore after starting a new routine, but after doing the same exercise for weeks and months the athlete has little, if any, muscle soreness. This also explains the need to vary the routine and continue to apply the Overload Principle if continued improvement is desired. The levels of adaptation are quite complex.
About the Author
Critical Speed Manual by Mark Strasser M.S. CSCS
Decrease Your 40 Yard Dash with the Critical Speed Manual. If you are interested in gaining speed and training with a World-class strength and conditioning coach, then this is the most exciting training manual you'll ever read!